Luhmann and Morality: A Reflection on the Sociology of Amorality

"Are we born with a moral code?" is the title of CNN's article on February 14, 2014. The content of the article, including its video, inform us that babies can actually distinguish between good and evil, even as young as 3 months old. The research was conducted by Yale University's Infant Cognition Center, also known as "The Baby Lab". The researchers claim that babies are in fact born with an innate sense of morality. Nevertheless, they said, their parents and society can play a role in developing a belief system in babies.

Hegel, Geuss and Benjamin: The Continuity and Discontinuity of History

If Hegel correctly defined our historical development, it means that the “maturity of reality” is progressing in our society. For instance, it is famously well-known that Francis Fukuyama’s The End of History and the Last Man is spirited in this Hegelian sense. Although the thesis could still be debatable, but it is undoubtedly true that his book is inspired by Hegelian’s historical idealism which highly regards reason as the central orientation of society. All in all, Hegel’s concept of history provides us with an optimistic view for the future of world history.

Naratif: Antara “Apa” dengan “Mengapa”

Lihat sahaja museum. Museum adalah manifestasi daripada integrasi antara ingat dan lupa. Museum takkan memaparkan semua bahan sejarah. Museum dipaksa (atau sengaja) memilih bahan-bahan sejarah tertentu. Pemilihan ini (seringkali juga dengan semangat moral/idealogi) bukan sahaja berdasarkan kepada bahan yang tersedia, tetapi juga berdasarkan kepada selera semasa mereka yang berwewenang. Termasuk selera khalayak, yang diandaikan mereka. Termasuk juga keterbatasan ruang yang ada. Ternyata, museum adalah lambang kepada integrasi antara pengenangan dan pelupaan; mengenang bahan tertentu sambil melupa bahan tertentu yang lain. Museum, dalam kata lain, hanya dapat mandiri di atas paradoks pengenangan dan pelupaan.

Reconsidering Jeffrey Alexander’s Cultural Trauma Theory

On good example of this: the propagandization of Indonesia’s distressed episode in 1965—Pembantaian 1965—when the communists or alleged members of the communist party and their family members were brutally exterminated. This was a massive and very organized brutality, carefully planned and enforced top-down by government officials. I would urge you to watch “The Act of Killings” and “The Look of Silence” by Joshua Oppenheimer to get the idea how this distortion of facts—propagandization via media and education (recent times)— leads to failure to attempt at reconciliation, to have meaningful discussion of the past to bring about efforts to eliminate stigmas toward current generations of the communist party members/ alleged members/victims of the that particular time.

Ruang: Fungsi-fungsinya

Ruang dan makna adalah dua dimensi yang mesti dipertimbangkan secara serentak bagi menghasilkan suatu pengamatan yang bersifat kebelakaan (holistic). Keupayaan untuk menghasilkan suatu pengamatan sosial dan budaya yang luas dan mendalam adalah amat dipengaruhi oleh peranan ruang.