“Whereas in the zones of inclusion human beings matter as persons, in the zones of exclusion it is only their bodies that count. Physical violence, sexuality and the urge to satisfy basic human needs are given free rein, and become directly and immediately relevant without being civilized by the symbolic codes developed by social systems for this purpose. There is no way to connect complex social expectations with situations in which these basic needs imperatively demand satisfaction. Under these circumstances human beings are only interested in the factors that determine the situation, and other human bodies and their behavior are of utmost importance. This may remind the sociological observer of very ancient social orders, but as a matter of fact, these zones of exclusions are merely by-products of a modern functionally differentiated society.” (Niklas Luhmann, dipetik menerusi Balke 2012: 28)

Balke, Friedrich. 2002. Tristes Tropiques: Systems Theory and the Literary Scene, Soziale Systeme 8(1): 27-37.

Soalan: Berdasarkan kutipan di atas, adakah anda bersetuju (atau tidak bersetuju) bahawa nilai person (= kemanusiaan) ditentukan berdasarkan sejauh dan seluas mana setiap individu tersebut dirangkumkan dalam sistem sosial? Apakah hujah yang mendasari pilihan pandangan anda tersebut.

Tarikh hantar pada/sebelum: 28 April 2021.


Senarai pelajar yang telahpun menghantar Kuiz 4 – Sistem Sosial Malaysia pada/sebelum 28 April 2021.

BilanganNombor Pelajar
1A180226
2A179440
3A180100
4A182676
5A180311
6A179606
7A179907
8A180216
9A180365
10A179333
11A179885
12A183771
13A180491
14A180636
15A179354
16A179765
17A180504
18A179759
19A180446
20A180093
21a179623
22A179687
23A182775
24A179389
25A179727
26A179582
27A183771
28A180369
29A184266
30A183782
31A179699
32A180265
33A181531
34A180444
35A179720
36A179520
37A180115
38A180694
39A182319
40A179984
41A180465
42A179344
43A180417
44A179716
45A182487
46A180392
47A182780