Mendung Memali: Suatu Trauma Tanpa Kebudayaan

Memali merupakan suatu peristiwa berdarah di Malaysia. Peristiwa menyayat hati yang berlaku pada 19 November 1985 ini telah disebut sebagai “pembunuhan beramai-ramai” (Tunku Abdul Aziz 2011: 156) dan juga “peristiwa hitam dalam lipatan sejarah negara” (Rahilah & Siti Fathihah 2012: 79). Pada hari tersebut, menurut Riduan & C.N. Al-Afghani (2010), Memali mendung berserta hujan mencurah; seakan bertafakur memperingati darah-darah yang menyimbah bumi. Sebagai bencana yang disebabkan oleh ‘tangan’ manusia, bukan sepertimana beberapa bencana alam (yang bebas pengaruh manusia), peristiwa Memali disorot dengan beban moral yang senang membahagikan puak kebaikan dengan puak kejahatan.

Luhmann and Morality: A Reflection on the Sociology of Amorality

"Are we born with a moral code?" is the title of CNN's article on February 14, 2014. The content of the article, including its video, inform us that babies can actually distinguish between good and evil, even as young as 3 months old. The research was conducted by Yale University's Infant Cognition Center, also known as "The Baby Lab". The researchers claim that babies are in fact born with an innate sense of morality. Nevertheless, they said, their parents and society can play a role in developing a belief system in babies.

Hegel, Geuss and Benjamin: The Continuity and Discontinuity of History

If Hegel correctly defined our historical development, it means that the “maturity of reality” is progressing in our society. For instance, it is famously well-known that Francis Fukuyama’s The End of History and the Last Man is spirited in this Hegelian sense. Although the thesis could still be debatable, but it is undoubtedly true that his book is inspired by Hegelian’s historical idealism which highly regards reason as the central orientation of society. All in all, Hegel’s concept of history provides us with an optimistic view for the future of world history.